Increase Your Return On Failure

Increase Your Return on Failure
HBR, May 2016, p88
By Julian Birkinshaw and Martine Haas

Learning from your failures always seems like a good idea and it is usually okay to talk about other people’s failures, we call this gossip, but most people don’t like to talk about their own failures. Talking about one’s own failures can be challenging to one’s own identity. It takes a leader at a later stage of adult development to really learn from failure and become a bigger person instead of retreating into a defensive shell. Such leaders are rare. So how does the organization really learn from failure?

At earlier stages of adult development people use their work as a strong part of their identity so experiencing a failure at work is the same as experiencing a failure of one’s identity and can be devastating. The organizational culture can overcome this by defining the role of a person as including a discussion of their failures. As long as this is kept in a positive vein and not used for punitive purposes then discussing failure can be made a positive part of the workplace culture and therefore part of one’s identity.

The article describes some good processes for learning from failure. What they are really talking about though, is a full on culture change and the article does not frame the processes in that way. The culture of an organization determines how people deal with failures. If it is part of the culture, people at an earlier stage of adult development will adopt the behaviors for learning from failure as long as everyone else is doing this and it is part of their role in the organization. People can adopt a later stage of development without really functioning at that level if they are in an environment that is at a later stage. The environment, or culture, is determined in large measure by the leader of the organization, which is why it is so important to have someone at the top who lives at a later stage of development instead of just giving it lip service. The leader needs to be at a later stage of adult development or the culture will not change and the organization will not learn from its failures.

The article recommends holding post failure reviews, sharing lessons learned through frequent meetings and reviewing all the failures to see if you need to make process changes, which is quite likely. All this, according to the article, must be done in an environment where people feel safe and everyone understands. For most companies this is a full on culture change and most leaders are simply not capable of creating this level of change.

Embracing Agile

Embracing Agile

HBR, May 2016, p41

By Darrell K. Rigby, Jeff Sutherland and Hirotaka Takeuchi

One of the problems executives face is that different parts of the organization require different management styles and it is the rare manager who understands this and is able to use multiple styles. The software industry has been acutely aware of this because while production processes and management techniques dominate the management literature, production is only a minor part of a software company. The dominant part of a software company is product development and that requires different processes and management techniques from production. The software industry has worked to develop new management techniques relevant to software development for many years and this article examines these agile methodologies and contrasts their effects on areas of organization outside of software development.

The article highlights the success of agile methodologies and what they have done for the IT industry, even “helping to create a new generation of skilled general managers.” The authors suggest that the greatest problem with implementing agile methodologies is managers who don’t know how agile is supposed to work. The agile methodologies are discussed in enough detail to give one the flavor of their effectiveness. The article shows where agile works in organizations, product development and marketing, and where it does not, finance and accounting, but does not give a theoretical basis for the distinction. Instead they suggest that each department be allowed to make its own decision about whether to use agile or not based on the preference of that department’s manager. For implementing agile, the article recommends starting small, getting senior managers to do it too, allowing experienced teams more freedom and removing barriers to spreading agile within the organization.

Agile methodologies are a step in the right direction and as managers move toward an agile management style, from a command and control one, they require a significant amount of coaching, personal growth and support. Agile changes the culture of an organization and the managers must become different people to be effective.